Large-scale land restoration improved drought resilience in Ethiopia’s degraded watersheds
Sutton, P. C., Anderson, S. J., Costanza, R. & Kubiszewski, I. The ecological economics of land degradation: impacts on ecosystem service values. Ecol. Econ. 126, 182–192 (2016).
Burrell, A. L., Evans, J. P. & De Kauwe, M. G. Anthropogenic climate change has driven over 5 million km2 of drylands towards desertification. Nat. Commun. 11, 3853 (2020).
Reynolds, J. F. et al. Global desertification: building a science for dryland development. Science 316, 847–651 (2007).
Nkonya, E. et al. in Economics of Land Degradation and Improvement—A Global Assessment for Sustainable Development (eds Nkonya, E. et al.) 117–165 (Springer, 2016).
Barbier, E. B. & Hochard, J. P. Does land degradation increase poverty in developing countries? PloS ONE 11, e0152973 (2016).
Chonabayashi, S., Jithitikulchai, T. & Qu, Y. Does agricultural diversification build economic resilience to drought and flood? Evidence from poor households in Zambia. Afr. J. Agric. Resour. Econ. 15, 65–80 (2020).
Sustainable Land Management: Challenges, Opportunities and Trade-offs (World Bank, 2006).
Sustainable Land Management and Restoration in the Middle East and North Africa Region—Issues, Challenges, and Recommendations (World Bank, 2019).
Schmidt, E. & Tadesse, F. The impact of sustainable land management on household crop production in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia. Land Degrad. Dev. 30, 777–787 (2018).
Gashaw, T., Bantider, A. & G/Silassie, H. Land degradation in Ethiopia: causes, impacts and rehabilitation techniques. J. Environ. Earth Sci. 4, 98–104 (2014).
The Cost of Land Degradation in Ethiopia: A Review of Past Studies (World Bank, 2007).
Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing, Value Added (% of GDP)—Ethiopia (World Bank, accessed 11 March 2021); https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS?locations=ET
Rural Population (% of Total Population)—Ethiopia (World Bank, accessed 11 March 2021); https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS?locations=ET
Gessesse, G. D., Tamene, L., Abera, W., Amede, T. & A, W. Effects of land management practices and land cover types on soil loss and crop productivity in Ethiopia: a review. Int. Soil Water Conserv. Res. 9, 544–554 (2021).
Abera, W. et al. Characterizing and evaluating the impacts of national land restoration initiatives on ecosystem services in Ethiopia. Land Degrad. Dev. 31, 37–52 (2019).
Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed Grant in the Amount US$20.0 Million and a Proposed Grant from the Global Environmental Facility Trust Fund in the Amount of US$9.0 Million to the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia for a Sustainable Land Management Project Report No. 42927-ET (World Bank, 2008).
Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed Credit in the Amount of SDR32.6 Million and a Proposed Grant from the Global Environment Facility Trust Fund in the Amount of US$8.33 Million and a Proposed Grant from the Least Developed Countries Fund Trust Fund in the Amount of US$4.62 Million and a Proposed Grant from the Ethiopia Sustainable Land Management Project Trust Fund in the Amount of US$42.65 Million to the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia for a Sustainable Land Management Project II (SLMP-2) Report No. PAD525 (World Bank, 2013).
Implementation Completion and Results Report (IDA-H3770 TF-92320) on a Grant in the Amount of SDR12.5 Million (US$20.0 Million Equivalent) and a Global Environmental Facility Grant in the Amount of US$9.0 Million to the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia for a Sustainable Land Management Project Report No. ICR3074 (World Bank, 2014).
Implementation Completion and Results Report (IDA-53180/TF15838/TF15868/TF15869) on a Credit in the Amount of SDR32.6 Million (US$50 Million Equivalent) and a Grant from the Global Environment Facility Trust Fund in the Amount of US$8.33 Million and a Grant from the Least Developed Countries Fund Trust Fund in the Amount of US$4.62 Million and a Grant from the Ethiopia Sustainable Land Management Project Trust Fund (Norway) in the Amount of US$42.65 Million to the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia for a Sustainable Land Management Project Report No. ICR00004449 (World Bank, 2019).
Huete, A. et al. Overview of the radiometric and biophysical performance of the MODIS vegetation indices. Remote Sens. Environ. 83, 195–213 (2002).
Li, X. & Xiao, J. Mapping photosynthesis solely from solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: a global, fine-resolution dataset of gross primary production derived from OCO-2. Remote Sens. 11, 2563 (2019).
Rouse, J. W., Haas, R. H., Schell, J. A. & Deering, D. W. Monitoring vegetation systems in the Great Plains with ERTA. In Proc. Third Earth Reserves Technology Satellite Symposium (eds Freden, S. C. et al.) 309–317 (NASA, 1974).
Tucker, C. J. Red and photographic infrared linear combinations for monitoring vegetation. Remote Sens. Environ. 8, 127–150 (1979).
Song, X. P. et al. Global land change from 1982 to 2016. Nature 560, 639–643 (2018).
Anderson, W. & Johnson, T. in Economics of Land Degradation and Improvement—A Global Assessment for Sustainable Development (eds Nkonya, E. et al.) 85–116 (Springer, 2016).
De Jong, R., De Bruin, S., Schaepman, M. & Dent, D. Quantitative mapping of global land degradation using Earth observations. Int. J. Remote Sens. 32, 6823–6853 (2008).
Bai, C. G., Dent, D. L., Olsson, L. & Schaepman, M. E. Proxy global assessment of land degradation. Soil Use Manage. 24, 223–234 (2008).
Frankenberg, C. et al. New global observations of the terrestrial carbon cycle from GOSAT: patterns of plant fluorescence with gross primary productivity. Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L17706 (2011).
Joiner, J. et al. First observations of global and seasonal terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence from space. Biogeosciences 8, 637–651 (2011).
Mohammed, G. H. et al. Remote sensing of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) in vegetation: 50 years of progress. Remote Sens. Environ. 231, 111177 (2019).
Porcar-Castell, A. et al. Linking chlorophyll a fluorescence to photosynthesis for remote sensing applications: mechanisms and challenges. J. Exp. Bot. 65, 4065–4095 (2014).
Gu, L., Han, J., Wood, J. D., Chang, C. Y. & Sun, Y. Sun-induced Chl fluorescence and its importance for biophysical modeling of photosynthesis based on light reactions. N. Phytol. 223, 1179–1191 (2019).
Guanter, L. et al. Global and time-resolved monitoring of crop photosynthesis with chlorophyll fluorescence. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111, E1327–E1333 (2014).
Joiner, J. et al. Global monitoring of terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence from moderate-spectral-resolution near-infrared satellite measurements: methodology, simulations, and application to GOME-2. Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 2803–2823 (2013).
Sun, Y. et al. OCO-2 advances photosynthesis observation from space via solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. Science 358, eaam5747 (2017).
Sun, Y. et al. Overview of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2: Retrieval, cross-mission comparison, and global monitoring for GPP. Remote Sens. Environ. 209, 808–823 (2018).
Guan, K. et al. Improving the monitoring of crop productivity using spaceborne solar-induced fluorescence. Glob. Change Biol. 22, 716–726 (2016).
He, L. et al. From the ground to space: using solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence to estimate crop productivity. Geophys. Res. Lett. 47, e2020GL087474 (2020).
Ali, D. A., Deininger, K. & Monchuk, D. Using satellite imagery to assess impacts of soil and water conservation measures: evidence from Ethiopia’s Tana-Beles watershed. Ecol. Econ. 169, 106512 (2020).
Climate Data: Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) (NCAR, accessed 15 September 2021); https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu/climate-data/standardized-precipitation-index-spi
East Africa: Ethiopia (FEWS NET, accessed 12 January 2021); https://fews.net/east-africa/ethiopia
Agricultural Sample Survey 2012/13 (2005 E.C) Volume V, Report on Area and Production of Belg Season Crops for Private Peasant Holdings (Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Central Statistical Agency, 2013).
Agricultural Sample Survey 2007/08 (2000 E.C) Volume V, Report on Area and Production of Belg Season Crops for Private Peasant Holdings (Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Central Statistical Agency, 2008).
Wen, J. et al. A framework for harmonizing multiple satellite instruments to generate a long-term global high spatial-resolution solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF). Remote Sens. Environ. 239, 111644 (2020).
Ethiopia Sentinel2 Land Use Land Cover 2016 (RCMRD, 2018); http://geoportal.rcmrd.org/layers/servir%3Aethiopia_sentinel2_lulc2016
Burke, M., Driscoll, A., Lobell, D. B. & Ermon, S. Using satellite imagery to understand and promote sustainable development. Science 371, eabe8628 (2021).
Lobell, D. B., Thau, D., Seifert, C., Engle, E. & Little, B. A scalable satellite-based crop yield mapper. Remote Sens. Environ. 164, 324–333 (2015).
Lobell, D. B. et al. Eyes in the sky, boots on the ground: assessing satellite- and ground-based approaches to crop yield measurement and analysis. Am. J. Agric. Econon. 102, 202–219 (2019).
Li, X. & J, X. A global, 0.05-degree product of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence derived from OCO-2, MODIS, and reanalysis data. Remote Sens. 11, 517 (2019).
Funk, C. C. et al. A Quasi-Global Precipitation Time Series for Drought Monitoring (USGS, 2014).
Hersbach, H. et al. ERA5 Monthly Averaged Data on Single Levels from 1979 to Present (Copernicus Climate Change Service, 2019); https://doi.org/10.24381/cds.f17050d7
Yamazaki, D. et al. MERIT DEM: a new high-accuracy global digital elevation model and its merit to global hydrodynamic modeling. In: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2017 abstr. H12C-04 (2017).
Hengl, T. et al. Mapping soil properties of Africa at 250 m resolution: random forests significantly improve current predictions. PLoS ONE 10, e0125814 (2015).
Sebastian, K. Agro-ecological Zones of Africa (International Food Policy Research Institute, 2009).
Pérez-Hoyos, A. Global Crop and Rangeland Masks (JRC, 2018); http://data.europa.eu/89h/jrc-10112-10005